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 Glossary

 

ATT

Advanced Transport Telematics

Term promoted in a programme of Research and Development for the European Commission for the application of telematics to road transport (DGXIII, 4th Framework). It followed the similar DRIVE (I and II) programmes. See also ‘IST’.

 

AUTOMATED BOOKING

The use of telematics tools by the customer in order to allow contact with the centre managing the journeys (TDC) by interacting directly with the booking functionalities, without any need to go through an operator. Channels for automatic booking are, e.g., Internet, voice response systems (see also IVRS), smart card readers.

 

AVL

Automated Vehicle Locationing

A system for the automatic identification of the position of a vehicle usually through GPS or beacon-based technology and other on-board equipment (such as odometer and gyrometer). The position information is transmitted by the vehicle to a control centre which is able to monitor the various aspects of the operation. Typically, locations are presented to the operator on a digital map or through a similar graphical representation.

 

AVM

Automatic Vehicle Monitoring

A system that allows for the determination of the movements and activities of vehicles belonging to a certain fleet on the road network. It often includes functionalities for fleet management and requires AVL to be present.

 

BOOKING

A confirmed reservation where the order has been entered in the TDS and a pick-up time has been agreed between the customer and the TDC dispatcher.

 

CODE

Co-ordination of Dissemination in Europe of transport telematics

A project supporting research, development and demonstration projects for the European TAP programme in the Transport Sector. It developed general methodologies and guidelines, e.g. related to the analysis of user requirements in the development of telematics systems for transport.

 

CONVERGE

Telematics sector consensus and support

A project supporting research, development and demonstration projects for the European TAP programme in the Transport Sector. It developed general methodologies for the specification and definition of architectures of telematics systems applied to transport.

 

CORD

Co-ordination of Research and Development

A project supporting research, development and demonstration projects in the field related to the European programme DRIVE II. It promoted co-ordination and strategic evaluation of research projects and development in the road transport sector.

 

DGINFSO

Directorate General Information Society

Directorate General INFSO of the European Commission which manages the framework programme and specific research and development initiatives in support of innovation in the information society. Since 1999 it has acquired the structure and activities of the previous DGXIII (Information Technology) and DGIII (Industry).

 

DGXIII

Directorate General XIII

Directorate General XIII of the European Commission which manages framework programmes and specific initiatives of research and development and support of innovation in information technology. In 1999 it was restructured into Directorate General Information Society (DGINFSO).

 

DRIVE (I AND II)

Dedicated Road Infrastructure for Vehicles in Europe Programme of research and development by the European Commission for the application of telematics to road transport in DGXIII, 3rd Framework of R&D.

 

DRT

Demand Responsive Transport

Demand Responsive Transport is an intermediate form of public transport, somewhere between a conventional service route that uses low floor buses and special transport services that typically use a single or shared taxi mode. DRT services are offered to customers according to their individual needs, generally only stopping where passengers request pick-up or drop-off. Routes are scheduled with software or manually from a central dispatching system (see also TDS). DRT route models are defined according to the level of flexibility, the type of stopping points and the degree of linearity or area coverage offered by the service.

 

ECONOMIC VIABILITY

Evaluation assessment category

The financial costs and benefits of a system, taking into account the levels of public or private finance which are required in order to create and manage the system in a particular market environment.

 

EMIRES

Economic Growth and Sustainable Mobility supported by IST at a Regional level including SMEs

European project in the framework of the Information Society Technologies (IST) Programme. It addresses the application and demonstration of new concepts of business and digital economy in less favoured regions by applying advanced ISTs, by combining DRT services, dynamic value considerations and public-private partnerships. The goal is to develop a network of Regional Service Centres offering dynamically generated, integrated packages of value added services to authorities, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and individuals.

 

EVA

Evaluation Process for road transport informatics

A supporting project within the DRIVE I European Programme. It developed general methodologies for the evaluation of telematics systems for transport.

 

FAMS

Flexible Agency for Collective Demand Responsive Mobility Services

European trial project in the framework of the Information Society Technologies (IST) programme. Its goal is to scale up the technologies, services and business models currently adopted in DRT and to support the evolution from single DRT applications towards a flexible agency capable of providing a range of demand responsive mobility services.

 

FEEDER SERVICE

A public transport service which collects and/or distributes passengers within a pre-defined catchment area for passengers, from and to primary routes and other modes of transport (e.g. express bus, inter-urban bus, tram, rail).

 

FLEXIBLE ROUTE

A scheduled service between two end stop points which has fixed departure times, but with a more or less flexible route, which responds to the actual needs for pick-up and drop-off on the route. See also semi-fixed route.

 

GIS

Geographic Information System

A Geographic Information System is a class of systems and software applications for the graphical representation and management of geographical information.

 

GPS

Global Positioning System

A localisation system based on a network of geostationary satellites. It can be utilised to estimate the position of vehicles within AVL systems.

 

GUI

Graphical User Interface

A graphical interface which is an application (or part of an application) software to support the presentation of information and interaction between the users and the system. It is provided with graphical capabilities and mouse management and other devices for the selection of information and navigation within a multi-windows environment.

 

INTERMODALITY

Intermodality occurs when the route of an individual passenger consists of a combined chain from origin to destination involving at least two different modes. A transport network or route serving passengers is intermodal if it is established by means of more than one mode.

 

IST

Information Society Technologies

A Research and Development Programme of the European Commission for the development, application and demonstration of information technology (DGINFSO, 5th and 6th Frameworks of R&D).

 

ITS

Intelligent Transport Systems

A group of techniques, using information technology and telecommunications in vehicles and infrastructure, supporting or performing services intended to improve transportation from the point of view of safety, efficiency, comfort and the environment.

 

IVRS

Interactive Voice Response System

System for the automatic and interactive management of the telephone dialogue with the user. It usually allows the selection of options within a pre-defined menu. The user’s choices can be communicated by pressing the keys on the keypad or by voice recognition. In the case of DRT services this means that there is no dispatcher interface when booking a trip.

 

LAN

Local Area Network

Telematics network with a limited geographical extent (e.g. a building, an office or a vehicle) to link computers, electronic devices and informatics applications.

 

MARKET PROJECTION

Evaluation assessment category

An estimate of the possibilities of applying and developing a system to a new (sector of a) market, measured in terms of the economic viability, service provision and technical performance of the systems involved.

 

OBU

On-Board Unit

Any electronic device installed on board a vehicle which is able to interact locally with people (e.g. the driver or passenger) or other devices and possibly to communicate with equipment outside the vehicle.

 

PASSENGER

A user of the DRT service travelling with a service vehicle. The status of a user changes from being a customer to a passenger once the booking has been accepted at the TDC.

 

PROMISE

Personal Mobile Traveller and Traffic Information

European project in the framework of the ATT programme with the goal of developing and demonstrating systems and architectures for the dissemination of information to passengers, based mainly on technologies for mobile telephones (cellular phones and palm-held devices).

 

REFUSED CUSTOMER

A person who made contact with the TDC dispatcher but could not, for some reason, be provided with a booking because, e.g. the service was fully booked or the requested origin and/or destination was outside the service area.

 

ROUTE

An ordered list of locations defining a path through the road network. A route may pass through the same location more than once.

 

SAMPLUS

System for the Advanced Management of Public Transport Operations Plus

European project in the framework of the TAP programme for the further demonstration of and development of systems and architectures for the management of DRT services. SAMPLUS followed the SAMPO project.

 

SAMPO

System for the Advanced Management of Public Transport Operations

European project in the framework of the TAP programme for the development and demonstration of systems and architectures for the management of DRT services.

 

SEMI-FIXED ROUTE

A scheduled service between two end stop points which has fixed departure times but with a more or less flexible route, which responds to the actual needs for pick-up and drop off on the route. In addition, there are also one or more scheduled stop points along the route, leading to a semi-structured service. See also ‘flexible route’.

 

SERVICE AREA

The area over which a defined DRT service is provided. This may cover an area in which the ‘service journey’ begins and ends at the same stop point, or it may be a corridor in which the service journey begins and ends at two different stop points.

 

SERVICE JOURNEY

A passenger carrying journey by a vehicle between an origin and a destination. The route followed by the vehicle is created by the TDS.

 

SERVICE PROVISION

Evaluation assessment category

The effective organisation and offer to the public of a service (such as DRT) and the perception by the users (including passengers) and operators of its compatibility with its objectives, reliability and level of convenience.

 

SMS

Short Message Service

Short text messages, up to 160 characters, that can be sent or received from mobile units linked to a GSM network.

 

STOP POINT

A location where passengers can board or alight from vehicles. A stop point may be fixed (regular bus stop), predefined (recognised meeting point) or non-predefined (generally the doorstep of the passenger). The vehicle only calls at predefined and non-predefined stop points as a result of a booking request by a passenger.

 

STS

Special Transport Service

Special transport services are adopted in order to respond to the needs of a group of users such as the elderly and people with disabilities. Typically, they are carried out with special vehicles fitted with appropriate equipment in order to accommodate specific equipment such as wheelchairs. STS are usually managed by the municipal authorities (e.g. in north European countries) or by voluntary organisations (e.g. Italy, United Kingdom).

 

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

This defines, following specified methodologies, the main components of a system and their inter-relationships (in terms of the functions performed, data flows, information, physical components and the organisation of a system). The European project CONVERGE developed a general methodology for describing the architecture of an ITS (Intelligent Transport System).

 

SYSTEM INTEGRATION

The design, construction and operation of transport services within a prescribed boundary (usually geographical) through the co-operation of all relevant service providers (e.g. operators, authorities, technology). The end product is the provision of transport services that: satisfy customer needs (e.g. cost effective and efficient completion of a unimodal or multimodal journey); perform consistently and cost effectively; and is subject to operational testing and evaluation.

 

TAP

Telematics Applications Programme

A programme of Research and Development by the European Commission for the application of telematics to sectors and services of general interest to the citizen (DGXIII, 4th Framework of R&D (1994-1998)). The sub-programme TAP/Transport relates to the application and development of telematics in the transport sector.

 

TARGET POPULATION

The people for whom a certain service is created. Typically, they live within the area in which the service takes place; e.g. in the case of DRT services the target population can be all inhabitants within a certain distance (e.g. within 100 metres) of predefined stop points, or all inhabitants within a defined service area.

 

TDC

Travel Dispatch Centre

The location organising the Travel Dispatch System (TDS). The TDC is the interface between the customers and the providers of the service, including the fund holder (e.g. the local authority), the operator and the driver. Typically, the TDC is located in the operational environment of the fund holder, which is usually the local authority, but may be the operator. A TDC may be located in a multi-sectoral call centre (where unrelated non-transport services are also provided), or within an independent research and development environment.

 

TDS

Travel Dispatch System

A booking and reservation system which has the capacity to dynamically assign passengers to vehicles and to optimise the routes taken by vehicles. The operational TDS is located in the TDC.

 

TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE

Evaluation assessment category

The ability of the ITS to operate within specified standards, e.g. reliability, safety and convenience to the public transport operator and the TDC.

 

TELSCAN

Telematics Standards and Co-ordination of Advanced Transport Telematics Systems

in relation to elderly and Disabled Travellers

Project for the support of research development and demonstration projects within the TAP European Framework (Transport Sector). It developed guidelines and recommendations for planning telematics systems in various areas of application, in order to assist the elderly and people with disabilities, particularly within the field of transport and the environment.

 

TRANSFERABILITY

The ability to transfer a technology application or methodology or result from one applicable area to another, or from one geographical organisation and operational context to another.

 

WAN

Wide Area Network

Telematics network with wide geographical extent (e.g. an industrial area, an urban district or a city) to link computers, electronic devices and informatics applications.

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